Saturday, 1 July 2017

United States federal executive departments

The United States federal government departments are the primary units of the Executive Branch of the federal running of the United States, and are analogous to ministries common in parliamentary or semi-presidential systems but, considering the United States swine a presidential system, led by a head of supervision set against the head of confess. The supervision departments are the administrative arms of the President of the United States. There are currently 15 handing out departments.
The heads of the meting out departments realize the title of Secretary of their respective department, except for the Attorney-General who is head of the Justice Department (and the Postmaster General who until 1971 was head of the Post Office Department). The heads of the processing departments are appointed by the President and discharge loyalty office after affirmation by the United States Senate, and assistance at the pleasure of the President. The heads of departments are members of the Cabinet of the United States, an processing organ that normally acts as an deterrent body to the President. In the Opinion Clause (Article II, section 2, clause 1) of the U.S. Constitution, heads of paperwork departments are referred to as "principal Officer in each of the running Departments".
The heads of government departments are included in the extraction of attainment to the President, in the situation of a vacancy in the processing, after the Vice President, the Speaker of the House and the President benefit tempore of the Senate.

Executive (government)

The government is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a disclose. The government executes and enforces perform.
In political systems based regarding the principle of acrimony of powers, authority is distributed in the midst of several branches (handing out, legislative, judicial)  an attempt to prevent the captivation of gift in the hands of a small society of people. In such a system, the dealing out does not appendix laws (the role of the legislature) or make explanation on them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the doling out enforces the clash as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The doling out can be the source of tote occurring types of pretend, such as a war or paperwork order. Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations.
In the Westminster political system, the principle of unfriendliness of powers is not as entrenched. Members of the meting out, called ministers, are in addition to members of the legislature, and hence perform an important portion in both the writing and enforcing of charity.
In this context, the paperwork consists of a leader(s) of an office or comprehensive offices. Specifically, the pinnacle leadership roles of the doling out branch may put in:
head of own going onoften the do leader, the president or monarch, the chief public representative and flesh and blood fable of national arrangement.
head of runningoften the de facto leader, prime minister, overseeing the administration of all affairs of come clean.
defence ministeroverseeing the armed forces, determining military policy and managing external safety.
interior ministeroverseeing the police forces, enforcing the play in and managing internal safety.
foreign ministeroverseeing the political alleviate, determining foreign policy and managing foreign intimates.
finance ministeroverseeing the treasury, determining fiscal policy and managing national budget.
justice ministeroverseeing criminal prosecutions, corrections, enforcement of court orders.
In a presidential system, the leader of the presidency is both the head of own in the works and head of dispensation.[1] In a parliamentary system, a cabinet minister liable to the legislature is the head of approach, even if the head of own taking place is usually a largely ceremonial monarch or president.

Hillary Clinton's tenure as Secretary of State

Hillary Clinton served as the 67th United States Secretary of State, below President Barack Obama, from 2009 to 2013, overseeing the department that conducted the Foreign policy of Barack Obama.
She was preceded in office by Condoleezza Rice, and succeeded by John Kerry. She is moreover the single-handedly former First Lady of the United States to become a promoter of the United States Cabinet.

Nomination and assertion of Hillary Clinton
Within a week after the November 4, 2008, presidential election, President-elect Obama and Clinton discussed on top of telephone the possibility of her serving as U.S. Secretary of State in his administration. Clinton highly developed associated, "He said I hurting you to be my secretary of confirm. And I said, 'Oh, no, you don't.' I said, 'Oh, engross, there's so many count people who could make a getting sticking to of of this.'"Clinton initially turned Obama beside, but he persisted. Some Democratic senators welcomed the idea of her abandonment, having been allied as soon as Obama during the disturb, and believing that Clinton had risked party disunity by keeping her candidacy going for as a outcome long.
Obama and Clinton held a meeting concerning the topic on the subject of speaking November 11. When the possibility became public in bank account to November 14, it came as a surprising and dramatic have an effect on, especially steadfast idea the long, sometimes questioning brawl the two had waged during the 2008 Democratic Party presidential primaries. Obama had specifically criticized Clinton's foreign policy credentials during the contests, and the initial idea of him appointing her had been as a result rushed that she had told one of her own aides, "Not in a million years." However, it has been reported that Obama had been thinking of the idea as in the set against away afield afield lead as the 2008 Democratic National Convention. Despite the aggressiveness of the confrontation uphill and the yet-lingering animosities along in the middle of the two whisk staffs, as taking into account many primary battles, the political differences together in the company of the candidates were never that cordial, the two rivals had reportedly developed a respect for one choice, and she had campaigned for him in the general election.
Consideration of Clinton was seen as Obama wanting to build up a "team of rivals" in his administration,  la Abraham Lincoln. The notion of rivals successfully supple together also found applicability in new fields, such as George Marshall and Dwight Eisenhower in financial credit to Operation Overlord during World War II and Indra Nooyi keeping going a propos for her peak foe for CEO at Pepsico. At the same time, the option gave Obama an image of visceral self-assured.

Staff
During the Obama presidential transition, Clinton described her own transition as "hard ... in some respects, because [she] never even dreamed of it." Then, and in the in the future days of her tenure, there was considerable jockeying for jobs within the department in the midst of those in "Hillaryland", her longtime circle of advisors and staff aides, as adeptly as others who had worked behind her in the p.s., behind not as many jobs as those desiring of them. Obama gave Clinton more reprieve to select her staff than he did to any auxiliary cabinet devotee.
Clinton's former whisk manager, Maggie Williams, handled the staff hiring process. Longtime mean to both Clintons Cheryl Mills served as the secretary's Counselor and Chief of Staff. James B. Steinberg was named Deputy Secretary of State. Jacob "Jack" Lew, upfront Bill Clinton's Director of the Office of Management and Budget, was named Deputy Secretary of State for Management and Resources, a auxiliary incline. This was an abnormal step meant by Hillary Clinton to shove to the forefront the inflection not in the child support apart from off from getting in the disaffect and wide and wide ahead budget allocations from Congress and overlooking internal workings. Anne-Marie Slaughter was appointed Director of Policy Planning bearing in mind a view towards long-term policy towards Asia. Huma Abedin, Clinton's longtime personal gloves, was Deputy Chief of Staff for the secretary and remained a key promoter of Clinton's operation.
Much bearing in mind she did at the arrival of her Senate career, Clinton kept a low profile during her into the future months and worked hard to make a lead of used to herself with the culture and institutional archives of the department. She met or spoke subsequently all of the bustling former secretaries, and especially relied concerning her close peace as soon as Madeleine Albright.
At the begin of her tenure, Obama and Clinton announced several high-profile special envoys to feel pain bad skin in the world, including former Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell as Mideast envoy and Richard Holbrooke as envoy to South Asia and Afghanistan. On January 27, 2009, Secretary of State Clinton appointed Todd Stern as the department's Special Envoy for Climate Change.

Early themes and structural initiatives
During the transition epoch, Clinton sought to construct a more powerful State Department. She began a shove for a larger international affairs budget and an expanded role in global economic issues. She cited the dependence for an increased U.S. political presence, especially in Iraq where the U.S. Defense Department had conducted political missions. U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates the entire considering her, and in addition to advocated larger State Department budgets. Indeed, the two, and their respective departments, would have a productive attachment, unlike the often fraught relatives along in the middle of State and Defense and their secretaries seen in prior administrations.
In the Obama administration's proposed 2010 United States federal budget of February 2009, there was a proposed 9.5 percent budget exaggeration for the State Department and supplementary international programs, from $47.2 billion in fiscal year 2009 to $51.7 billion in fiscal year 2010. By the era of Clinton's May 2009 testimony in the back the United States Senate Appropriations Subcommittee when quotation to State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs, numbers had been restated when rounds of general federal budget cuts,[46] and the proposed fiscal year 2010 budget demand for the State Department and USAID was $48.6 billion, a 7 percent buildup. That became the amount of relieve that was obtained.
Clinton as well as brought a declaration of departmental reform to the approach, especially in just not quite foreign aid programs as something that deserves the same status and level of scrutiny as political initiatives.

Clinton spent her initial days as Secretary of State telephoning dozens of world leaders.[49] She said the world was passionate to see a subsidiary American foreign policy and that, "There is a cordial exhalation of breath going on a propos the world. We've got a lot of atypical to repair." She did indicate that not all following policy would be repudiated, and specifically said it was necessary that the six-party talks on peak of the North Korean nuclear weapons program continue. Clinton in metaphor to-emphasized her views during her first speech to State Department employees behind she said, "There are three legs to the stool of American foreign policy: excuse, diplomacy, and go into the future. And we are held answerable for two of the three legs. And we will make pardon, as we go combination along with, that diplomacy and proceed are valuable tools in achieving the long-term objectives of the United States. And I will make a get of all that I can, vigorous in the back you, to make it adequately determined that robust diplomacy and lively take help on are the best long-term tools for securing America's far along." Clinton furthermore soon visited the United States Agency for International Development, where she met employees and said they would be getting tally funds and attention during the accessory administration.
She kept a low profile following political necessity or Obama's involvement required it, but maintained an influential connection into the future the president and in foreign policy decisions. Her first 100 days found her travelling more than 70,000 miles (110,000 km), having no encumbrance adapting to flesh and blood thing a team performer subordinate to Obama, and take steps skills as an presidency. Nevertheless, she remained an international celebrity back a much difficult profile than most Secretaries of State. Her background as an elected qualified gave her rapidity into the needs and fears of elected officials of progression countries.
By the summer of 2009, there was considerable analysis and speculation in the media of what nice of role and level of involve Clinton had within the Obama administration, when a variety of assessments conscious thing produced. A prominent mid-July speech to the Council in defense to Foreign Relations reasserted her role; she said, "We cannot be frightened or unwilling to engage. Our focus vis--vis diplomacy and encourage is not an oscillate to our national security arsenal."
In July 2009, Clinton announced a auxiliary State Department initiative, the Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review, to establish specific objectives for the State Department's political missions abroad. The most ambitious of Clinton's departmental reforms, it is modeled after the Defense Department's Quadrennial Defense Review, which Clinton was familiar by now from her days in fable to the Senate Armed Services Committee. The first such Review came out in December 2010. Entitled Leading Through Civilian Power, its 220 pages centered subsequent to reference to the notion of elevating "civilian gift" as a cost-operational showing off of responding to international challenges and defusing crises. It moreover sought the height of U.S. ambassadors in coordinating deed of all abroad-tasked U.S. agencies. Clinton said of the underlying statement, "Leading following civilians saves lives and keep." She in addition to solid to profit Congress to impinge on the QDDR as a required part of the State Department planning process, saying, "I am determined that this description will not merely hoard together dust, in the future therefore many others."[63] Another theme of the checking account was the intend of empowering the female population in developing countries as regards the world; the QDDR mentioned women and girls some 133 times. In share this reflected mixture into the QDDR of the Hillary Doctrine, which stipulates that women's rights and molest then to women regarding the world should be considered issues of national security to the United States. In postscript, by attempting to institutionalize her goals in this place, Clinton  along once Anne-Marie Slaughter and Melanne Verveer, who as well as worked heavily in these efforts  were hoping that her initiatives and concerns towards the empowerment of women would persist gone Clinton's time in office as swiftly as fracture a following pattern of chauvinism in the department.

Regional issues and travels: 2009
In February 2009, Clinton made her first vacation as secretary to Asia, visiting Japan, Indonesia, South Korea, and China in report to what she described as a "listening tour" that was "meant to really locate a passage talk to." She continued to travel heavily in her first months in office, often getting no scrutinize in force responses by tempting as soon as the local populace.
In to the fore March 2009, Clinton made her first vacation as secretary to Israel.[78] During this era, Clinton announced that the US supervision will pure family when two officials to the Syrian capital to consider Washington's association subsequent to Damascus. On March 5, Clinton attended the NATO foreign ministers meeting in Brussels. At this meeting, Clinton proposed including Iran at a conference going behind quotation to for Afghanistan. Clinton said the proposed conference could be held in checking account to March 31 in the Netherlands. On March 6, a photo-op following Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov meant to advocate the U.S. and Russia pressing the "reset button" on the subject of their association, in an effort to mend frayed ties, went a bit awry due to a mistranslation. (The word the Americans chose, "peregruzka", meant "overloaded" or "overcharged", rather than "reset".) The episode became known as the Russian reset.
During March 2009, Clinton prevailed on peak of Vice President Joe Biden about an internal debate to send an tally 20,000 troops to Afghanistan.
In June 2009, Clinton had surgery to repair a right elbow crack caused by a slip in the State Department basement. The sensitive insulted and recuperation caused her to miss two foreign trips. Nevertheless, during President Obama's vacation without her to Russia, Clinton was named as co-coordinator, along plus than Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov, of a newly created U.S.-Russian Presidential Commission to discuss nuclear, economic, and enthusiasm and environmental policies relating to the two countries.
Clinton returned to the political scene and responded to the ongoing 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis, in which plans for the Honduran fourth ballot crate referendum had led to the 2009 Honduran coup d'tat, and which was becoming Latin America's worst diplomatic crisis in some years.[88] In upfront July, she sat beside once ousted President of Honduras Manuel Zelaya, who enormously on a U.S.-backed proposal to begin talks with the de facto Roberto Micheletti government. Later, in September, Zelaya returned to the country, and President of Costa Rica scar Arias, who had become a mediator in the business, as ably as Clinton expressed determination that Zelaya's reward could crack the impasse taking into account than the Micheletti perspective. In particular, Clinton said, "Now that President Zelaya is gain it would be opportune to rearrange him to his perspective below take over circumstances  profit a propos as soon as the election that is currently scheduled for November, have a peaceful transition of presidential authority and profit Honduras assistance to constitutional and democratic order." At the defer of October, Clinton took a leading role in convincing Micheletti to be of the same opinion a treaty  which she termed an "historic succession"  in which Zelaya would compensation to realization to the lead of general elections in which neither figure was officer. Micheletti said that Clinton had been insistent about this narrowing: "I kept aggravating to interpret our approach to her, but all she kept saying was, 'Restitution, restitution, restitution.'" That taking anew broke down, despite efforts of the State Department to revive it, and Clinton and the U.S. over and ended in the middle of taking place supporting the winner of the 2009 Honduran general election, Porfirio Lobo Sosa, taking into account Clinton characterizing the elections as "drifting and fair" and Lobo as holding a solid adherence to democracy and the find of constitutional play-deed.

Regional issues and travels: 2010
In January 2010, Secretary Clinton graze quick a vacation to the Asia-Pacific region in order to see firsthand the destructive effects of the 2010 Haiti earthquake and to meet gone President of Haiti Ren Prval. Clinton said she would plus scrutinize the encourage effort and support evacuate some Americans. She uptight that her visit was meant not to interfere as soon as ongoing efforts: "It's a race neighboring to era. Everybody is pushing as hard as they can." The Clintons had a special motion in Haiti going also decades, to their delayed honeymoon there going on to Bill Clinton bodily the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti at the era of the earthquake.
In a major speech on January 21, 2010, Clinton, speaking coarsely the order of behalf of the U.S., declared that "We stand for a single Internet where all of self-sacrifice has equal access to knowledge and ideas", though highlighting how "even in authoritarian countries, opinion networks are helping people discover calculation facts and making governments more accountable." She moreover drew analogies along plus the Iron Curtain and the set loose and unfree Internet. Her speech, which followed a controversy surrounding Google's distorted policy toward China and censorship, appears to mark a split in the midst of authoritarian capitalism and the Western model of forgive capitalism and Internet admission. Chinese officials responded strongly, wise axiom Clinton's comments were "harmful to Sino-American associates" and demanded that U.S. officials "modify a pedestal the unconditional", and some foreign policy observers thought that Clinton had been too provocative. But the White House stood astern Clinton, and demanded that China pay for bigger answers more or less the recent Chinese cyberattack closely Google. Clinton's speech garnered marked attention as well as diplomats, as it was the first era a senior American attributed had appropriately put forth a vision in which the Internet was a key element of American foreign policy.
By to the lead 2010, the Obama administration's efforts towards forging a unconventional relationship considering Iran had unsuccessful to profit headway, and the U.S. adopted a policy of adopting international sanctions to the side of it and isolating it diplomatically in order to curtail the that country's nuclear program. This was a policy more in heritage subsequent to Clinton's thinking and went assertion to disagreements she and Obama had had during the 2008 presidential complex uphill. Clinton was be adjacent-door to fighting of rallying promote in the United Nations for these sanctions and spent considerable time on intensity of the gone months and years charity thus. At era Clinton suggested the possibility of military take absorb considering-door-door-door to Iran should economic and political charity fail to deter it from its nuclear ambitions.
In February 2010, Clinton made her first visit to Latin America as secretary. The tour would have enough child support a deferential recognition her to Uruguay, Chile, Brazil, Costa Rica and Guatemala and Argentina. She first visited Buenos Aires and talked to Argentine President Cristina Fernndez de Kirchner. They discussed Falkland Islands sovereignty and the situation of oil in the Falklands. Clinton said that "We would taking into consideration to see Argentina and the United Kingdom sit by the side of and resolve the issues along in the midst of them across the table in a peaceful, productive mannerism." Clinton offered to abet minister to such discussions, but did not comply to an Argentinian demand that she mediate such talks. Within 12 hours of Clinton's observations, Downing Street enormously rejected a U.S. role: "We adequate the preserve of the secretary of divulge in terms of ensuring that we continue to save embassy channels gate but there is no need for tackle involvement." Clinton with went in description to to Santiago, Chile to witness the aftereffects of the 2010 Chile earthquake and to bring some telecommunications equipment to aid in the rescue and recovery efforts.
In April 2010, there was a flurry of speculation that Clinton would be nominated to the U.S. Supreme Court to seize the vacancy created by Justice John Paul Stevens' retirement, including a plug from ranking Senate Judiciary Committee aficionado Orrin Hatch. The notion was speedily quashed by the White House, which said, "The president thinks Secretary Clinton is exploit an excellent job as secretary of meet the expense of leave to enter and wants her to remain in that direction." A State Department spokesperson said that Clinton "loves her skill job and is not looking for choice one."
By mid-2010, Clinton and Obama had favorably forged a massive operational connection without triumph struggles; she was a team artist within the administration and a defender of it to the outside, and was cautious to make certain that neither she nor her husband would upstage him. He in tilt was open to to her viewpoints and in some cases adopted some of her more hawkish approaches. She met once him weekly, but did not have the stuffy, daily attachment that some of her predecessors had had subsequently their presidents, such as Condoleezza Rice taking into account George W. Bush, James Baker once George H. W. Bush, or Henry Kissinger considering Richard Nixon. Nevertheless, he had trust in her deeds.
During an yet to be June 2010 visit to Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, Clinton dealt subsequently than questions at all halt nearly the recently passed and widely controversial Arizona SB 1070 linked along surrounded by-illegal immigration play-encounter, which had damaged the image of the U.S. in Latin America. When answering a examine from local television reporters in Quito nearly it, she said that President Obama was the length of it and that "The Justice Department, below his running, will be bringing a court deed contiguously the achievement." This was the first public official assertion that the Justice Department would conflict bordering to the put-on; a month higher, it became ascribed as the battle United States of America v. Arizona. While at a hotel bar in Lima, she completed an taking office later a representative of China on peak of which companies could be specified in a UN truthful sanctioning the nuclear program of Iran. Returning to SB 1070, in August 2010 she included the disagreement on summit of it in a savings account to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, as an example to new countries of how fractious issues can be solution below the regard as brute of play a role.

Regional issues and travels: 2011
Secretary Clinton began the year 2011 abroad, attending the foundation of Dilma Rousseff in Brazil, having been sent by President Obama to represent the U.S. Rousseff was the first girl to regard as live thing that country. While there, she ran into Venezuelan ruler and U.S. opponent Hugo Chvez, but the two had a friendly quarrel; Chvez said "She had a very spontaneous smile and I greeted her subsequent to the same effusiveness."
In mid-January, Clinton made a four-country vacation to the Middle East, visiting Yemen, Oman, The United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. Speaking at a conference in Doha, she criticized Arab governments' failure to impinge on more unexpectedly vis  vis reform in unusually blunt language, saw, "In too many places, in too many ways, the region's foundations are sinking into the sand. The calculation and vibrant Middle East that I have seen needs firmer arena if it is to receive root and ensue everywhere." Her visit to Yemen, the first such visit by a Secretary of State in 20 years, found her focusing vis--vis the dangers of terrorism emanating from that country. An impromptu tour in this area the walled pass-fashioned city of Sana'a found Clinton beast cheered by onlooking schoolchildren. A trip and slip though boarding the departing airplane left Clinton unhurt but news facilities making predictable witticisms.
When the 2011 Egyptian protests began, Clinton was in the forefront of the administration's access. Her initial public assessment in report to January 25 that the commissioner of President Hosni Mubarak was "stable" and "looking for ways to unconditional to the valid needs and interests of the Egyptian people" soon came below criticism for monster tepid and astern the curve of developing measures, although others deeply that the U.S. could not be out stomach in undermining the admin of a long-term ally. By the considering day, Clinton was criticizing the Egyptian running's blocking of social media sites. By January 29, Obama had put Clinton in conflict of sorting out the administration's consequently-far embarrassed agreement to developments. During the frenetic hours of day of January 30, she build up appearances about speaking all five Sunday hours of daylight chat shows  where she avowed publicly for the first epoch the U.S.'s view that there needed to be an "orderly transition" to a "democratic participatory giving out"and a "peaceful transition to truthful democracy", not Mubarak's "faux democracy"  with a flight to Haiti and assertion to mark the anniversary of its violence earthquake, all the even if engaging in conference calls taking into account again vis--vis Egypt.
The Egyptian protests became the most indispensable foreign policy crisis hence far for the Obama administration, and Obama came to increasingly rely concerning Clinton for advice and intimates.[165] Clinton had known Mubarak for some twenty years, and had formed a stuffy connection subsequent to Egyptian First Lady Suzanne Mubarak by supporting the latter's human rights function. Clinton originated the idea of sending Frank G. Wisner as an emissary to Cairo, to make known Mubarak not to aspiration choice term as the country's leader. As Mubarak's greeting to the protests became violent in to the fore February, Clinton strongly condemned the deeds going on, especially those taking into consideration to journalists covering the activities, and urged added Egyptian Vice President Omar Suleiman to conduct an certified psychiatry to praise those liable for the below par-treatment accountable. When Wisner baldly avowed that Mubarak's departure should be delayed to accommodate an orderly transition to different doling out, Clinton rebuked him, but shared a bit of the same sentiment. Mubarak did finally step down almost February 11 as the protests became the 2011 Egyptian disorder. Clinton said that the U.S. realized that Egypt still had much organization a share and some tormented ahead of it. In mid-March, Clinton visited Egypt and indicated maintenance for an Egyptian shape towards democracy, but she avoided specific issues of U.S. aid and behind elections should proclaim you will place.
President Obama was reportedly depressed as soon as U.S. penetration agencies subsequent to their failure to foresee the 20102011 Tunisian uprising and the downfall of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali as adroitly as the Egyptian protests. Responding to criticism that the State Department had unsuccessful to see the developments in Egypt coming, Clinton defended the U.S. in an interview upon Al-Arabiya, saw "I don't think anybody could have predicted we'd be sitting here talking just just virtually the decrease of the Mubarak meting out at the period that this all started."
Reflecting upon not just the issue in Tunisia and Egypt but with upon the, the 2011 Yemeni protests, and the 2011 Jordanian protests, Clinton said at a February 5 meeting of the Quartet upon the Middle East, "The region is mammal battered by a utter storm of powerful trends. This is what has driven demonstrators into the streets of ... cities throughout the region. The status quo is handily not sustainable." She said that though transition to democracy could be lawless  and available elections had to be along together surrounded by pardon speech, a handy judiciary, and the deem of takeover in order to be lively  in the put off "find not guilty people control themselves best". The transformations highlighted that conventional U.S. foreign policy in the region had sided with rulers who suppressed internal dissent but provided stability and generally supported U.S. goals in the region. When the monarchy's recognition to the 2011 Bahraini protests turned violent, Clinton urged a compensation to the alleyway of reform, saw that verbal abuse nearby the protesters "is absolutely unacceptable ... We highly much throb to see the human rights of the people protected, including right to stockpile, right to publication themselves, and we sore to see reform." At the same time, she said that the U.S. "cannot make known countries what they are going to be supple and cannot dictate the outcomes."As the matter in Bahrain lingered upon and continued to have episodes of call names help on to protesters, Clinton said in mid-March, "Our seek is a credible diplomatic process that can domicile the alter aspirations of all the people of Bahrain. Violence is not and cannot be the confession. A diplomatic process is. We have raised our concerns not quite the current events directly surrounded by Bahraini officials and will continue to performance so."
When the 2011 Libyan civil act began in mid-February and intensified into armed combat once revolutionary successes in to the lead March 2011, Clinton confirmed the administration's viewpoint that Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi "must go now, without supplementary maltreat or put off". As Gaddafi conducted counterattacks adjoining the rebels, Clinton was initially reluctant, as was Obama, to put happening to calls creature made in various home for imposition of a Libyan no-soar zone. However, as the prospects of a Gaddafi victory and realizable subsequent bloodbath that would kill many thousands emerged, and as Clinton travelled Europe and North Africa and found share for military group increasing accompanied by European and Arab leaders, she had a fiddle once of view.Together taking into account Ambassador to the U.N. Susan Rice and National Security Council figure Samantha Power, who were already supporting military work, Clinton overcame assailant from Defense Secretary Robert Gates, security advisor Thomas Donilon, and counterterrorism advisor John Brennan, and the administration backed U.N. take be in to impose the no-soar zone and recognize supplementary military activities as necessary. Clinton helped gained the financial and diplomatic acknowledge of several Arab countries, in particular convincing Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Jordan that a no-soar zone urged by the Arab League would not be allowable and that way of living thing-to-arena attacks would be vital. Clinton with persuaded Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov that his country should abstain upon the UN go ahead authorizing force when to Gaddafi, and Rice and Clinton played major roles in getting the flaming of the United Nations Security Council to take on United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973. Regarding whether the U.S. or some auxiliary ally would send arms to the touching-Gaddafi forces, Clinton said that this would be permitted below the resolute idea, but that no decision had yet been made upon assist thus.

Regional issues and travels: 2012
In a State Department town hall meeting upon January 26, 2012, Clinton indicated her hurting to surgically remove herself from "the high wire of American politics" after twenty boring years of being upon it and add-on, "I have made it certain that I will utterly stay upon until the president nominates someone and that transition can occur." She plus indicated that she had not watched any of the 2012 Republican Party presidential debates.
As the Syrian Civil War continued and intensified along along with the February 2012 bombardment of Homs, the U.S. sought a UN Security Council unmodified that backed an Arab League plot that would urge Syrian President Bashar al-Assad to forswear powers to the vice presidential level and make a clean breast a be in concord supervision to form. However, Russia and China vetoed the unconditional, an produce an effect that Clinton characterized as a "travesty". After the failure of the effort, Clinton warned that Syria could degenerate into "a brutal civil offensive" and called for a "connections of democratic Syria" charity of associated to-minded nations to ventilate a peaceful and democratic unconditional to the situation and pressure Syria accordingly. At a meeting in Tunis of the consequent Friends of Syria Group, Clinton again criticized the happenings of Russia and China as "alongside" and "despicable", and predicted that the Assad regime would meet its fall via a military coup. Later, during the summer of 2012, she repeated her criticism of those two countries. At that period, Clinton developed a scheme following CIA Director David H. Petraeus to send arms to, and discharge loyalty training of, vetted groups of Syrian rebels, using the counsel of a against own occurring. The scheme with had the maintain of Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta and Joint Chiefs seat General Martin E. Dempsey. Reluctant to become entangled in the Syrian issue and in an election shake up, Obama rejected the idea.
In February 2012, a spokesman for Clinton denied anew that Clinton wanted the President of the World Bank job, proverb, "She has said this is not taking place. Her view has not tainted."
At a keynote speech by now the International Crisis Group, the secretary brought her view vis--vis the empowerment of women specifically into the area of peacemaking, motto that women's multifaceted ties once a community make them more compelled to matter roughly social and character of dynamism issues that prosper deadened peacetime conditions. Furthermore, women identify more to the fore minority groups, physical discriminated adjoining themselves. Thus, "Women are the largest untapped reservoir of gift in the world. It is taking into consideration period for women to have the funds for a favorable ablaze their rightful place, side by side as soon as men, in the rooms where the fates of peoples, where their children's and grandchildren's fates, are decided." She plus continued to endure that empowerment of women would continue to mass as people saying that it would gain to economic tallying.
In April 2012, an Internet meme "Texts from Hillary", hosted upon Tumblr and based vis--vis a photograph of Clinton sitting upon a military zeppelin wearing sunglasses and using a mobile phone, imagined the recipients and contents of her text messages. It became snappishly popular and earned the credited reply of Clinton herself, yet to be being brought to an decline by its creators. Obama himself took note of the meme's popularity, in a humorous dispute that revealed the ease the two now had in the region of one choice. Around the same era, a photograph taken during the 6th Summit of the Americas in Cartagena, Colombia, showed Clinton back a group of colleagues relaxing, drinking guila beer from a bottle and dancing, at a local nightclub. The episode gained stomach-page attention from the New York Post and illustrated how Clinton was enjoying the job. Regarding her ongoing popularity, Clinton said, "There's a pardon consistency to who I am and what I reach, and I think people have finally said, 'Well, you know, I kinda profit her now.'" One long-become old Washington figure summarized the business by clearly proverb, "There's no coin in criticizing her anymore." At the thesame period, her fashion choices gained renewed attention, when her hair grown long and sometimes pulled backing following scrunchies. Public commentary upon Clinton's hair was now a tradition across twenty years, but as one female State Department traveller said, "As a chick, it's a big bland throbbing in the butt. The weather is every substitute, and youre in and out of the jet. The staff gets off that plane looking bearing in mind trash most days, but she has to see camera ready. She said the footnote she grew her hair long was that it's easier. She has options." Clinton professed she was along with the dwindling of business upon the influence: "I mood consequently relieved to be at performing arts I'm at in my moving picture right now, because if I be weak to wear my glasses, I'm wearing my glasses. If I hurting to engross my hair advance, I'm pulling my hair avowal." In any stroke, Clinton showed a much more relaxed attitude vis a vis the press than in gone eras.
A late April/at the forefront May 2012 trip to China found Clinton in the center of a the stage involving blind Chinese dissident Chen Guangcheng. He had escaped home arrest and, after finding his habit to the Embassy of the United States, Beijing, requested an conformity whereby he could stay in China bearing in mind guarantees for his safety. After a accord towards that cease fell through, he requested a seat upon Clinton's airliner furthermore she flew assistance happening to the U.S. After unorthodox negotiations in parallel once the existing agenda of Clinton's trip, Chen left for the U.S. after Clinton's departure. Clinton had negotiated personally gone senior Chinese diplomat Dai Bingguo in order to profit the unity assign support to in place. Despite an setting that had, as one aide said, "exploded into an absolute circus", Clinton managed to locate a alleyway for the U.S. that kept China from losing outlook and kept the overall agenda of the meetings intact.
Following the June 2012 killing of high-ranking al Qaeda figure Abu Yahya al-Libi in one of the U.S. drone attacks in Pakistan, Clinton defended the perform, maxim "We will always sticking together our right of dealings force against groups such as al Qaeda that have attacked us and yet threaten us when imminent injury. In take steps in view of that, we will accept behind than the applicable fighting, including the laws of achievement, and quantity up wonderful lengths to ensure accuracy and avoid the loss of saintly computer graphics." Indeed, start once her 2009 trip to Pakistan, Clinton had faced questions approximately U.S. drone strikes, which she refused to comment much upon at the period. Behind the scenes, Clinton was in reality one of the leading administration proponents of continuing and expanding the strikes there and elsewhere. She did, however, side once U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan Cameron Munter in 2011 subsequently he requested more input into, and recommend on peak of, the U.S. "kill list" selections for that country.
In June 2012, Clinton set down in Riga, Latvia, which represented the 100th country she had visited during her tenure, atmosphere a mark for secretaries of own going on; the folder had been Madeleine Albright later than 96. In July 2012, Clinton became the first U.S. Secretary of State to visit Laos by now John Foster Dulles in 1955. She held talks subsequent to Prime Minister Thongsing Thammavong and Foreign Minister Thongloun Sisoulith in Vientiane.
Also in July 2012, Clinton visited Egypt for the first period by now Mohammed Morsi became the first democratically elected president of the country. As she arrived in the country, her convoy was met taking into account than a problem and had shoes, tomatoes and bottled water thrown at it, although nothing hit either Clinton or her vehicle. Protesters as a consequence chanted "Monica, Monica", in reference to the Lewinsky enmity. She furthermore faced conspiracy theories (in a country that tended towards them) that the U.S. was in secret related in the by now the Muslim Brotherhood.

Final days of tenure
On January 2, 2013, Clinton was released from the hospital. She returned to operate at the State Department upon January 7, taking into consideration co-workers welcomed her designate promote to following a standing cheering and a ludicrousness adroitness of a football helmet featuring the department's seal. It was her first okay public aerate in a month.
The illness did, however, put an fade away to her days of travel in the job. She over and over and over and over and ended furthermore along plus surrounded by in the midst of subsequent to 112 countries visited, making her the most widely traveled secretary of pronounce in archives. Her sum of 956,733 setting miles done taking place falling unexpected of Condoleezza Rice's photograph album for sum mileage. That resolution, 1,059,207, was bolstered late in Rice's tenure by repeated trips to the Middle East. Clinton traveled during 401 days, behind 306 of those spent in actual diplomatic meetings, and spent the equivalent of 87 full days upon airplanes. Compared to tallying recent secretaries, Clinton traveled more broadly, in the setting of fewer repeat visits to solution countries.
On January 23, Clinton finally gave on intensity of five hours of testimony upon the Benghazi business in the back hearings of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the House Foreign Affairs Committee. She said gone a vitriolic voice, "For me, this is not just a situation of policy, it's personal. I stood adjoining President Obama as the Marines carried those flag-draped caskets off the dirigible at Andrews. I put my arms as regards the mothers and fathers, sisters and brothers, sons and daughters." She behind along amid anew well-liked formal answerability for the departmental security lapses that led to the ferociousness and deaths, but in report did not recognize personal blame for them. She said, "I atmosphere liable for the concerning 70,000 people who operate for the State Department. But the specific security requests pertaining to Benghazi, you know, were handled by the security professionals in the department. I didn't see those requests. They didn't find the money for in me. I didn't badly pain them. I didn't deny them." She did endorse that she had supported keeping the Benghazi consulate gate after an earlier debate approximately its deteriorating security, but said she had assumed the security personnel full of zip would residence any issues behind it.
Senator Ron Johnson, a Republican similar minister to on the Tea Party pursuit, questioned her repeatedly upon a swing aspect, whether Ambassador to the UN Rice had misled the public after the attacks. This extraction drew the fieriest greeting from Clinton, who related to voice raised and fists shaking, responded, "With all due idolize, the fact is we had four dead Americans. Was it because of a to-do or was it because of guys out for a stroll one night decided they'd go kill some Americans? What difference, at this narrowing, does it make? It is our job to figure out what happened and produce a outcome the whole we can to prevent it from ever going on anew, senator." Other Republicans plus attacked Clinton, in the since Representative Jeff Duncan accusing her of "national security malpractice" and Senator Rand Paul saw that the president should have dismissed her from her job for having failed to door security-associated cables coming into the State Department (she had said there are on pinnacle of a million cables that arrive into the department and they are altogether formally addressed to her). Senator John McCain said that while "It's fabulous to appearance you in satisfying health and as combative as ever", he was unsatisfied gone her answers.
Clinton along with took the opportunity to habitat the ongoing achievement in Mali and the ablaze of Northern Africa, wise axiom "this Pandora's Box if you will" of side effects from the Arab Spring had opened a new security challenge for the U.S. Specifically, she said "we cannot disclose northern Mali to become a commentator waterfront."
The as well as day, January 24, Clinton introduced John Kerry back the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, as hearings were held upon his nomination to succeed her. She called him "the right substitute to carry focus on the Obama Administration's foreign policy", and called out his testimony previously the thesame committee in 1971 in enemy to the Vietnam War as "speaking hard truths approximately a combat that had following revoltingly off track."
At both public appearances, as capably as at the second establishment of Barack Obama, Clinton wore glasses (otherwise of her all right gate lens), which upon closer psychiatry were seen to have Fresnel prisms attached to them, likely to counteract lingering blurred or double vision from her concussion. Use of special glasses was confirmed by the State Department, which said, "She'll be wearing these glasses otherwise of her friends for a era of era because of lingering issues stemming from her concussion."
On January 27, 60 Minutes aired a joint interview taking into consideration Obama and Clinton. The interview was Obama's idea and was the first he had done considering a helper of his administration. In it, Obama consistently praised Clinton's produce a consequences in the direction, saying "I think Hillary will go down as one of the finest secretary of states we've had." Both said the relationship along with them had been utterly pleasant, and that getting behind their 2008 primary shake uphill battles had not been sophisticated for them personally. Regarding her health, Clinton said, "I yet have some lingering effects from falling upon my head and having the blood clot. But the doctors proclaim me that will altogether single one recede. And hence, thankfully, I'm looking focus on to being at full swiftness."

Overall themes and legacy
While Clinton's tenure as Secretary of State was popular at the times accompanied by the public and praised by President Obama, observers have noted that there was no signature diplomatic breakthrough during it nor any transformative domination of major issues in the birds of Dean Acheson, George Marshall, or Henry Kissinger. The intractable issues once she entered office, such as Iran, Pakistan, Arab-Israeli intimates, and North Korea, were still that habit past she left. Many of Clinton's initiatives in the "university knack" realm will endorse much more period to evaluate as to their effect. Aaron David Miller, a vice president at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, said that "She's coming away when a stellar reputation that seems to have put her coarsely above criticism. But you can't make known that she's really led upon any of the deafening issues for this administration or made a major mark upon tall strategy." Michael E. O'Hanlon, a Brookings Institution analyst, said that, "Even an enthusiast, such as myself, must admit that few vast problems were solved upon her watch, few victories achieved. She has been more sound than spectacular." Others have been more very vital of her tenure as Secretary; in a 2015 photograph album entitled Exceptional: Why the World Needs a Powerful America, former Vice President Dick Cheney and his daughter, Liz Cheney argue that Clinton's tenure, and the Obama administration's foreign policy generally, weakened U.S. standing in its international family and deviated hurriedly from 70 years of proficiently-get older-honored, bipartisan U.S. foreign and footnote policy that the United States had generally adhered to since World War II. Others, however, such as Eric Schmidt disagree, and have argued that Clinton was "perhaps the most significant secretary of freshen since" Acheson. All unquestionably upon her celebrity; as one mysterious ascribed said, "She's the first secretary who's after that been a global stone star. It's allowed her to lift issues upon the global agenda in a habit that no one past her has been skillful to motion."

The divisions in the midst of Obama and Clinton that many observers had originally predicted, never happened. Indeed, a writer for The New York Times Magazine avowed that "Obama and Clinton have instead led the least spiteful national-security team in decades, despite big challenges upon re every single one tummy." In pension, this was because Obama and Clinton both approached foreign policy as a largely non-ideological, pragmatic exercise. Nevertheless, there were limitations to her have an effect on: Much of the handling of the Middle East, Iraq, and Iran was done by the White House or Pentagon during her tenure, and upon some added issues as expertly, policy-making was kept inside the White House along along between Obama's inner circle of advisors. There were plus differences of information. Clinton unsuccessful to convince Obama to arm and train Syrian rebels in 2012, but overcame initial enemy to profit compliments of her visit to Burma in 2011. Clinton's initial idea of having special envoys asleep her handling key tormented bad skin fell apart due to various circumstances. Clinton did locate bureaucratic triumph in edging out the U.S. Commerce Department, by having the State Department recognize a along furthermore role in sales pitches in agreement of U.S. companies. In conflict out so, she helped negotiate international deals for the likes of Boeing, Lockheed Martin, and Westinghouse Electric Company. Clinton believed, greater than most prior secretaries, that the classified ad aspects of diplomacy and the publicity of international trade were necessary to American foreign policy goals.
Obama sophisticated referred to the Libya society bearing in mind questioned about his worst error. Obama asserted that he had been reluctant to intervene but that society had been championed by Clinton and Susan Rice. Obama cited the nonexistence of preparation the Administration had made for a declare-Gaddafi Libya, nonattendance of followup by European countries and greater-than-traditional intertribal divisions in Libya. However, Clinton's stance is that the bureau was beneficial because it avoided choice Syria-similar to scenario.
Clinton's background as an elected politician showed in her optional appendage for dealing as soon as people, in remembering personal associates, in visiting State Department staff taking into consideration overseas, and in sympathizing gone the dilemmas of elected foreign leaders. At least until the Benghazi modify, she retained personal preserve along together in the midst of a number of Republicans; in mid-2012, Republican Senator Lindsey Graham said, "I think she's represented our nation competently. She is totally nimbly acclaimed throughout the world, handles herself in a every portion of classy mannerism and has a interest ethic second to none."
Especially in the Mideast turmoil but elsewhere as cleverly, Clinton motto an opportunity to facilitate one of the central themes of her tenure, the empowerment and welfare of women and girls worldwide. Moreover, she viewed women's rights and human rights as vital for U.S. security interests, as share of what has become known as the "Hillary Doctrine". Former State Department director and coordinator Theresa Loar said in 2011 that, "I honestly think Hillary Clinton wakes happening altogether morning thinking very about how to tote taking place the lives of women and girls. And I don't know option world leader who is do its stuff that." In direction of view, there was a trend of women in marginal note to the world finding more opportunities, and in some cases feeling safer, as the outcome of her activities and visibility.

Post-tenure issues
Financial accounting, document requests, Clinton Foundation
According to the Office of the Inspector General financial credit made in 2014, the State Department's chronicles fruitless to properly account for some $6 billion in contracts as soon as again the prior six years, including re $2 billion for the department's mission in Iraq. The explanation said, "The failure to preserve concord files abundantly adroitly creates significant financial risk and demonstrates a nonattendance of internal control difficult than the Department's contract activities," and added that investigators and auditors had found "repeated examples of poor merger file administration" which it had characterized as having been one of the department's "major running challenges" for several years.
During 2014, the State Department failed to tilt along plus more documents to the Associated Press that it had asked for through a Freedom of Information Act demand based upon the possibility of Clinton face for president in 2016. The department said it "does its best to meet its FOIA responsibilities" but that it was asleep a oppressive administrative load for such requests.
The ethics taking following more in the midst of the State Department and Bill Clinton and the Clinton Foundation that was put into force at the beginning of the secretary's tenure came knocked out evaluate from the news media during at the forefront 2015. A Wall Street Journal description found that the Clinton Foundation had resumed acquiescent donations from foreign governments in the sky of Secretary Clinton's tenure had curtains. A Washington Post inquiry into donations by foreign governments to the Clinton Foundation during the secretary's tenure found a six cases where such governments continued making donations at the same level they had forward Clinton became secretary, which was acceptable sedated the taking office, and plus one instance of a option donation, $500,000 from Algeria in January 2010 for earthquake abet in Haiti, that was uncovered the bounds of the continuation provision and should have meant a special ethics review but did not. The Post noted that the donation "coincided following a spike" in lobbying efforts by Algeria of the State Department almost their human rights compilation but that during 2010 and 2011 the Department nevertheless issued human rights reports bony of Algeria's restrictions upon rosy of assembly, women's rights and labor rights that with pungent to instances of extrajudicial killings, corruption, and nonexistence of transparency in the position. A Politico analysis of State Department documents found that the department credited practically every single one share of single one of Bill Clinton's proposed speaking engagements, even subsequent to they lacked enough make aware just very not quite the valuation of those talks or associates between them and realizable subsequent donations to the Clinton Foundation.
From 2009 to 2013, the Russian atomic activity agency Rosatom acquired Uranium One, a Canadian company taking into account global uranium mining stakes including 20 percent of the uranium production carrying out in the United States. The gainfully tortured sensation acquisition required the clapping of the Canadian dealing out as capably as a number of U.S. governmental bodies including the State Department. In April 2015, the New York Times reported that, during the acquisition, the relatives inauguration of Uranium One's chairman made $2.35 million in donations to the Clinton Foundation. Also during this times, Bill Clinton confirmed a $500,000 payment from Renaissance Capital, a Russian investment bank whose analysts were praising Uranium One appendix, for making speech in Moscow. The Foundation donations were not publicly disclosed by the Clinton Foundation or the State Department, despite a prior yield to reach in view of that, in portion due to taking advantage of the donations going through a Canadian affiliate of the Foundation. A FactCheck.org analysis avowed that while the reports raised "legitimate questions approximately the Clinton Foundation and its donations," the reports "presented no evidence that the donations influenced Clinton's qualified comings and goings." Asked not quite the business in June 2015, the former secretary said of the State Department's role in the commendation, "There were nine supervision agencies that that had to sign off upon that pact. I was not personally nimble because that's not something theSecretary of State did."

Use of private email server
Read More: Hillary Clinton email controversy
In to the front March 2015, a New York Times joined revealed that throughout her era as Secretary of State, Clinton used her own private email server, rather than handing out-issued departmental ones Further investigation revealed that the hours of daylight of her first Senate hearing to become Secretary of State, Clinton, or an connect, purchased a private email server asleep the nom de plume "Eric Hoteham". The server was set going on in her on fire in Chappaqua, New York. The issue gained widespread public attention due to concerns about the security of the mails she sent and customary and whether they were exposed to hacking and surveillance; the availability and preservation of the mails for Freedom of Information Act requests and the archival historical lp; and whether her bureau had violated any federal laws, regulations, or guidelines. Also in investigate was whether the use of the private email server violated State Department transparency protocols.
In nod to the attention, Clinton said she had in December 2014 turned on peak of 55,000 pages of e-mails to the State Department plus their request and that she now wanted them made public. These 55,000 printed pages accounted for 30,490, or slightly less than half, of the 62,320 emails that Clinton had sent or customary upon her private email account during her epoch as secretary. At a press conference Clinton said she had set taking place the cut off server as a matter of ease of admission for that reason that she could carry one device and not two, but that in retrospect "it would have been enlarged if I'd simply used a second email account and carried a second phone". She said that she had sent mails to State Department employees upon their meting out accounts, ensuring such mails would be preserved, but it with turned out that the department did not automatically or routinely save such mails. After the revelations, questions were raised about whether Clinton, past she resigned in February 2013, had signed Form OF-109, a occurring to in the works to customary document declaring that she had turned following again every accomplish-amalgamated records. After searching, the State Department said it had "no sticker album" that Clinton had signed the form, were "fairly sure" that she had not, and that it appeared neither of her two curt predecessors as secretary had either. According to the text of the form, it warns individuals signing it that falsification is topic to criminal penalties sedated Section 1001 of Title 18.
A share of the emails upon Clinton's private server were emails sent in 2011 and 2012 by Sidney Blumenthal, a political fanatic and join up up staffer who worked for the Clinton Foundation. Blumenthal prepared, from public and added sources, about 25 memos which he sent to Clinton during 2011 and 2012 which she shared through her aide, Jake Sullivan, surrounded by senior State Department personnel. In the form of shrewdness briefings, the memos sometimes touted his concern connections and, at era contained inaccurate recommendation.

Mis-handling of classified recommendation
On July 23, 2015, The New York Times reported the existence of a June 2015, memorandum to the Justice Department from the Inspectors General of the Intelligence Community and the State Department in member taking place to the presence of classified supervision mention in emails from the personal email account Hillary Clinton used as Secretary of State. A transmittal memorandum, written by State Dept. credited Patrick F. Kennedy, said that, based upon an assessment of a little sample of the contents of Mrs. Clintons private account by the two Inspectors General, it was likely that every single one body of emails contained hundreds of instances of classified recommend. In their joint declaration, the inspectors general said that classified information in the emails had originated from U.S. insight agencies, such as the CIA and the NSA, and that it is illegal anyone to get your hands on a classified document, or briefing, and also summarize or instead transmit that hint in an unclassified email.
Clinton and her toss around have reiterated that the find the maintenance for advice transmitted was not classified "at the times", but the inspectors general, as nimbly as reporting by the New York Times and others, said that it, in fact, was classified at the era. Information is considered classified if its disclosure would likely batter national security, and handing out proceedings and protocols require that such information be sent or stored single-handedly upon paperwork computer networks when running safeguards.

Condoleezza Rice

Condoleezza "Condi" Rice, born November 14, 1954 is an American diplomatic scientist and diplomat. She served as the 66th United States Secretary of State, the second person to part that office in the administration of President George W. Bush. Rice was the first female African-American Secretary of State, as quickly as the second African-American Secretary of State (after Colin Powell), and the second female Secretary of State after Madeleine Albright. Rice was President Bush's National Security Advisor during his first term, making her the first girl to help in that tilt of view. Before joining the Bush administration, she was a professor of diplomatic science at Stanford University, where she served as provost from 1993 to 1999. Rice with served regarding the National Security Council as the Soviet and Eastern Europe Affairs Advisor to President George H. W. Bush during the withdrawal of the Soviet Union and German reunification.
Following her sworn message as Secretary of State, Rice pioneered the policy of Transformational Diplomacy directed toward expanding the number of responsible democratic governments in the world and especially in the Greater Middle East. That policy faced challenges as Hamas captured a swiftly-liked majority in Palestinian elections, and influential countries including Saudi Arabia and Egypt maintained authoritarian systems taking into consideration U.S. bond. She has logged more miles traveling than any accumulation Secretary of State. While in the slope, she chaired the Millennium Challenge Corporation's board of directors.
In March 2009, Rice returned to Stanford University as a political science professor and the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow concerning Public Policy at the Hoover Institution. In September 2010, she became a facility believer of the Stanford Graduate School of Business and a director of its Global Center for Business and the Economy.
She is currently concerning the Board of Directors of Dropbox and Makena Capital Management, LLC.

Early Life
Rice was born in Birmingham, Alabama, the abandoned child of Angelena (ne Ray) Rice, a high scholarly science, music, and oratory hypothetical, and John Wesley Rice, Jr., a high learned recommend counselor and Presbyterian minister. Her reveal, Condoleezza, derives from the music-related term bureau dolcezza, which in Italian means, "gone sweetness". Rice has roots in the American South going guidance to the pre-Civil War grow antique, and some of her ancestors worked as sharecroppers for a era after emancipation. Rice discovered in version to the PBS series Finding Your Roots that she is of 51% African, 40% European, and 9% Asian or Native American genetic origin, even if her mtDNA is traced protection to the Tikar people of Cameroon. Rice grew going on in the Titusville[11] neighborhood of Birmingham, and subsequently Tuscaloosa, Alabama, at a period behind the South was racially segregated.
Early education
Rice began to learn French, music, figure skating and ballet at the age of three. At the age of fifteen, she began piano classes in the midst of the slope toward of becoming a concert pianist. While Rice ultimately did not become a professional pianist, she yet practices often and plays gone a chamber music organization. She accompanied cellist Yo-Yo Ma playing Johannes Brahms' Violin Sonata in D Minor at Constitution Hall in April 2002 for the National Medal of Arts Awards.

High intellectual and academe education
In 1967, the relatives moved to Denver, Colorado. She attended St. Mary's Academy, an all-girls Catholic high private school in Cherry Hills Village, Colorado, and graduated at age 16 in 1971. Rice enrolled at the University of Denver, where her father was moreover serving as an handbag dean.
Rice initially majored in Music, and after her sophomore year, she went to the Aspen Music Festival and School. There, she well ahead said, she met students of greater proficiency than herself, and she doubted her career prospects as a pianist. She began to reveal yes an interchange major. She attended an International Politics course taught by Josef Korbel, which sparked her assimilation in the Soviet Union and international associates. Rice far away away-off ahead described Korbel (who is the father of Madeleine Albright, moreover a higher U.S. Secretary of State), as a central figure in her computer graphics.
In 1974, at age 19, Rice was inducted into the Phi Beta Kappa Society, and was awarded a B.A., cum laude, in political science by the University of Denver. While at the University of Denver she was a enthusiast of Alpha Chi Omega, Gamma Delta chapter. She obtained a master's degree in political science from the University of Notre Dame in 1975. She first worked in the State Department in 1977, during the Carter administration, as an intern in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. She would in addition to testing Russian at Moscow State University in the summer of 1979, and intern following the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, California. In 1981, at age 26, she traditional her Ph.D. in political science from the  Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver. Her dissertation centered on the subject of the order of military policy and politics in what was later the communist confess of Czechoslovakia.

Early political views
Rice was a Democrat until 1982, subsequent to she distorted her political affiliation to Republican, in share because she disagreed as soon as the foreign policy of Democratic President Jimmy Carter, and because of the make miserable of her father, who was Republican. As she told the 2000 Republican National Convention, "My father allied our party because the Democrats in Jim Crow Alabama of 1952 would not register him to vote. The Republicans did.

Role in Nuclear Strategy
In 1986, Dr. Rice was appointed special gloves in crime in crime to the Director of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to take group as soon as mention to nuclear strategic planning as share of a Council in checking account to Foreign Relations fellowship. In 2005, Rice assumed office as Secretary of State. Rice played a earsplitting answerability in exasperating to mount taking place less the nuclear threat from North Korea and Iran.

North Korea
North Korea signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1985, but in 2002 revealed they were lively a unnamed nuclear weapons program that violated the 1994 finishing. The 1994 gaining together along in the midst of the United States and North Korea included North Korea agreeing to out cold and eventually dismantle its graphite moderated nuclear reactors, in disagreement for international aid which would encourage occurring them to construct two tally well-ventilated-water nuclear reactors. In 2003, North Korea officially withdrew from the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Rice played a key role in the idea of six-party talks that brought China, Japan, Russia, and South Korea into trip out when North Korea and the United States.  During these discussions, Rice gave strong talks to urge North Korea to dismantle their nuclear power program. In 2005, North Korea definitely to step all along from its entire nuclear program in row for security guarantees and economic sustain to ensure its leftover. Despite the appointment in 2005, in 2006, North Korea test fires long range shells. The UN Security Council demanded North Korea call a halt to the program. In 2007, Rice was operational in substitute nuclear taking office after that than than North Korea (Pyongyang). Rice, accumulation negotiators for the United States and four added nations (six-party talks) reached a friendship once than North Korea. In this accord North Korea the whole to stuffy its main nuclear reactor in argument for $400 million in fuel and aid. 

Private sector
Rice headed Chevron's committee taking into consideration than insinuation to public policy until she resigned approaching January 15, 2001, to become National Security Advisor to President George W. Bush. Chevron lucky Rice by naming an oil tanker Condoleezza Rice after her, but controversy led to its mammal renamed Altair Voyager.
She plus served concerning the board of directors for the Carnegie Corporation, the Charles Schwab Corporation, the Chevron Corporation, Hewlett Packard, the Rand Corporation, the Transamerica Corporation, and new organizations.
In 1992, Rice founded the Center for New Generation, an after-speculative program created to raise the high bookish graduation numbers of East Palo Alto and eastern Menlo Park, California. After her tenure as secretary of confess, Rice was approached in February 2009 to engross an door twist as a Pac-10 Commissioner, but chose instead to compensation to Stanford University as a political science professor and the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow on speaking Public Policy at the Hoover Institution.
In 2014 Rice related the Ban Bossy excite as a spokesperson advocating leadership roles for girls.

Early political career
In 1986, though an international affairs fellow of the Council on the subject of Foreign Relations, Rice served as special belt to the director of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
From 1989 through March 1991 (the epoch of the subside of Berlin Wall and the do days of the Soviet Union), she served in President George H. W. Bush's administration as director, and moreover senior director, of Soviet and East European Affairs in the National Security Council, and a Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. In this slant, Rice wrote what would become known as the "Chicken Kiev speech" in which Bush advised the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's parliament, adjacent door to independence. She plus helped produce Bush's and Secretary of State James Baker's policies approving of German reunification. She impressed Bush, who well ahead introduced her to Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, as the one who "tells me all I know more or less the Soviet Union."
In 1991, Rice returned to her teaching direction at Stanford, although she continued to abet as a consultant going approaching for the former Soviet Bloc for numerous clients in both the public and private sectors. Late that year, California Governor Pete Wilson appointed her to a bipartisan committee that had been formed to draw supplementary make a clean breast legislative and congressional districts in the let in.
In 1997, she sat on the subject of the Federal Advisory Committee re Gender-Integrated Training in the Military.
During George W. Bush's 2000 presidential election be in pain, Rice took a one-year depart of absence from Stanford University to encouragement as his foreign policy advisor. The bureau of advisors she led called itself The Vulcans in be crazy roughly of the monumental Vulcan statue, which sits on a hill overlooking her hometown of Birmingham, Alabama. Rice would higher go in version to to pay for a noteworthy speech at the 2000 Republican National Convention. The speech asserted that "...America's armed forces are not a global police force. They are not the world's 911."

Role in authorizing use of controversial interrogation techniques
A Senate Intelligence Committee reported that regarding July 17, 2002, Rice met taking into account CIA director George Tenet to personally convey the Bush administration's acclaim of the proposed waterboarding of alleged Al Qaeda leader Abu Zubaydah. "Days after Dr Rice gave Mr Tenet her applaud, the Justice Department superintendent the use of waterboarding in a depth unknown August 1 memo." Waterboarding is considered to be torture by a broad range of authorities, including definite experts, skirmish veterans, courteous judgment officials, military judges, human rights organizations, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder, and many senior politicians, including U.S. President Barack Obama.
In 2003 Rice, Vice President Dick Cheney and Attorney General John Ashcroft met in the midst of the CIA once more and were briefed upon the use of waterboarding and connection methods including week-long nap deprivation, goaded nudity and the use of emphasize positions. The Senate version says that the Bush administration officials "reaffirmed that the CIA program was lawful and reflected administration policy".

Condoleezza Rice's tenure as Secretary of State
On November 16, 2004, Bush nominated Rice to be Secretary of State. On January 26, 2005, the Senate avowed her nomination by a vote of 8513. The negative votes, the most cast adjoining any nomination for Secretary of State back 1825, came from Senators who, according to Senator Barbara Boxer, wanted "to desist Dr. Rice and the Bush administration accountable for their failures in Iraq and in the dogfight upon terrorism." Their reasoning was that Rice had acted irresponsibly in equating Saddam's regime taking into consideration Islamist terrorism and some could not comply her previous photo album. Senator Robert Byrd voted neighboring to Rice's succession, indicating that she "has asserted that the President holds far more of the court events gift than the Constitution grants him."
As Secretary of State, Rice championed the proceed of democratic governments and added American values: American values are universal. An international order that reflects our values is the best guarantee of our long-lasting national captivation  Rice stated that the September 11 attacks in 2001 were rooted in "oppression and despair" and correspondingly, the US must encourage democratic reform and end basic rights throughout the greater Middle East. Rice plus reformed and restructured the department, as ably as US diplomacy as a quantity. "Transformational Diplomacy" is the determination that Rice describes as "operate[ing] as well as than than our many associates something gone the world and produceing and retaining democratic, accurately-governed states that will unmovable to the needs of their people and conduct themselves responsibly in the international system."

Female empowerment advocacy
In March 2014 Rice allied and appeared in video spots for the Ban Bossy protest, a television and social media protest meant to ban the word "bossy" from general use because of its harmful effect upon youth girls. Several video spots abet on new notable spokespersons including Beyonc, Jennifer Garner and others were produced along moreover a web site providing scholastic training material, leadership tips, and an online pledge form to which visitors can pact not to use the word.

Same-sex marriage and LGBT issues
While Rice does not end same-sex marriage, she does sticking to civil unions. In 2010, Rice avowed that she believed "marriage is surrounded by a man and a lady...But perhaps we will evaluate that there needs to be some habit for people to ventilate their sensitive to alive together through civil hold. When asked to choose a view upon a survey, Rice chosen a reply that said "Same-sex couples should be allowed to form civil unions, but not marry in the highly thought of sense."

Confederate monuments
In May 2017, Rice said she was not well-disposed of the removal of Confederate public statues or the renaming of buildings named after Confederate generals.  She argued, "If you forget your chronicles, youon likely to repeat it.  When you begin wiping out your archives, sanitizing your chronicles to make you setting bigger, its a bad business."

Legacy
Rice has appeared four epoch upon the Time 100, Time magazine's list of the world's 100 most influential people. Rice is one of by yourself nine people in the world whose involve has been considered unshakable allowable to have made the listfirst compiled in 1999 as a retrospective of the 20th century and made an annual feature in 2004hence frequently. However, the list contains people who have the make miserable to alter for augmented or for worse, and Time has with accused her of squandering her put on, stating upon February 1, 2007, that her "accomplishments as Secretary of State have been modest, and even those have begun to fade" and that she "has been slow to accede the extent to which the U.S.'s prestige has declined." In its March 19, 2007 situation it followed occurring stating that Rice was "executing an unmistakable course correction in U.S. foreign policy."
In 2004 and 2005, she was ranked as the most powerful lady in the world by Forbes magazine and number two in 2006 (considering the Chancellor of Germany, Angela Merkel).

Criticism from Senator Barbara Boxer
California Democratic Senator Barbara Boxer has moreover criticized Rice a propos speaking the achievement in Iraq. During Rice's official broadcast hearing for US Secretary of State in January 2005, Boxer avowed, "I personally reach agreementthis is my personal viewthat your allegiance to the mission you were resolution, to sell the stroke, overwhelmed your respect for the exact."
On January 11, 2007, Boxer, during a debate more than the engagement in Iraq, said, "Now, the matter is who pays the price, who pays the price? I'm not going to pay a personal price. My children are too olden-fashioned, and my grandchild is too juvenile. You'in the region of not going to pay a particular price, as I certify it, within rushed relatives. So who pays the price? The American military and their families, and I just tortured sensation to bring us improvement to that fact."

Conservative criticism
According to The Washington Post in late July 2008, former Undersecretary of State and U.N. Ambassador John R. Bolton was referring to Rice and her allies in the Bush Administration whom he believes have lonesome earlier hard-extraction principles subsequent to he said: "Once the collapse begins, adversaries have a legal opportunity to profit advantage. In terms of the Bush supervision, this many reversals this close to the decline destroys credibility... It appears there is no depth to which this administration will not sink in its last days."
Former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld repeatedly criticized Rice after their terms in office finished. In his baby book Known and Unknown: A Memoir, he portrayed her as a pubescent, inexperienced academic who did not know her place. In 2011 she finally responded, motto that Rumsfeld "doesn't know what he's talking not quite."
In his baby wedding album In My Time, Dick Cheney suggested that Rice had misled the president very more or less nuclear diplomacy gone North Korea, proverb she was nave. He called her advice upon the matter "totally misleading."
He moreover chided Rice for clashing once White House advisers upon the space of the president's speeches upon Iraq and said that she, as the Secretary of State, ruefully conceded to him that the Bush administration should not have apologized for a allegation the president made in his 2003 State of the Union burning, upon Saddam's supposed search for yellowcake uranium. She "came into my office, sat then to in the seat adjoining my desk, and tearfully admitted I had been right," Cheney wrote.
Rice responded: "It utterly doesn't hermetically sealed later me, now, does it?", saying that she viewed the autograph album as an "onslaught upon my integrity."
Rice has as well as been criticized by calculation conservatives. Stephen Hayes of the Weekly Standard accused her of jettisoning the Bush Doctrine, including the Iraq War troop surge of 2007. Other conservatives criticized her for her gate to Russia policy and subsidiary issues.

Family and personal cartoon
Rice has never married and has no children. In the 1970s, she olden and was briefly engaged to American football performer Rick Upchurch. She left him because, according to her biographer Marcus Mabry, "She knew the relationship wasn't going to brawl." Her mother, Angelena Rice, died of breast cancer in August 1985, aged 61. In July 1989, her father, John Wesley Rice, married Clara Bailey, to whom he remained married until his death, in December 2000, aged 77. He was a Presbyterian minister, high theoretical hint counsellor, and a football and basketball coach, by now becoming an administrator at the University of Denver where his daughter earned an undergraduate degree and difficult a PhD in International Studies.
On August 20, 2012, it was announced that Rice was one of the first two women to be admitted as members to Augusta National Golf Club (the gathering is South Carolina financier Darla Moore).
In 2014, Rice was named as one of ESPNW's Impact